Warehouse or store is an area intended to store inventory. Warehouses are also called warehouse areas.
Warehouses are used in different logistics areas, such as supply, production, marketing (distribution). Each area has its own specific features of working with the warehouse.
You should assign warehouses in the following cases:
- Individual location address.
- Unified inventory storage conditions.
You can specify unlimited number of warehouses (stores) in the infobase. To use this feature, select Master data and settings — Master data and sections — Warehouse and delivery — Warehouse — Several warehouses.
Warehouse areas are common for all companies whose accounting is kept within the same infobase, i.e. goods that belong to different companies can be stored at one warehouse (store).
You can register company warehouses and stores in Master data and settings – Master data – Warehouses and stores hierarchical list.
You can use warehouse groups to combine warehouses by geographic characteristics (location). For example, the Moscow Region Warehouses group includes Khimki Warehouse, Podolsk Warehouse. To create a new group, click Create group.
Types of warehouses
The warehouse is used according to the selected warehouse type. In the application, you can specify the following warehouse types:
- Wholesale warehouse is used to register wholesale operations and fulfill internal company demands. When registering retail sales, warehouses of this type are unavailable for selection.
- Retail store is used to register wholesale and retail operations. To use the Retail store warehouse type, select the Master data and settings – Master data and sections – Sales – Retail sales – Retail sales option. If the option is disabled, you cannot register retail sales, and the Wholesale warehouse type is set for a new warehouse by default. Bin location warehousing of goods is unavailable in a retail warehouse.
- Shop storeroom is a type of wholesale warehouse which is used to record the movement of materials and products in unfinished production. Warehouses with the Shop storeroom flag are assigned to production departments. Shop storeroom is available for Production Management 2.2. For more information on using shop storerooms, see chapter "Production".
The Accounting price type is specified for a wholesale warehouse and retail store. This price type is used in document print forms where users do not specify prices, for example, when printing Requisition note (M-11) from the Internal goods consumption document. Accounting price type is also used in compliance print forms (INV-3, INV-19, TORG-15, TORG-16) if the By price type value is set in the Print prices field of the warehouse profile.
You can specify the Retail price type for a retail store. Retail sales will be carried out according to this price type.
Classification by store/warehouse formats is used to divide wholesale warehouses and retail stores by similar marketing indicators. For example, the following indicators are used:
- Warehouse location (convenience store, regional supermarket).
- Selling area (hypermarket, supermarket).
- Price range (boutique).
- Quantity of assortment items.
You can apply the selected format beginning from the date specified for the warehouse.
Store formats are used in sales planning by products and product categories in assortment management.
To be able to choose a store/warehouse format, select Master data and settings – Master data and sections – CRM and marketing – Marketing – Store formats.
You should specify store formats used in the company in the CRM and marketing – Settings and catalogs – Assortment management – Store formats list.
To specify a warehouse/store format, click the Set new store format settings in the warehouse profile on the Main tab.
To control assortment during registration of retail operations, select the Control assortment check box in the store format settings. In this case, you can sell only goods included into assortment. Assortment control is available only for warehouses of the Retail type.
To manage assortment, select the Master data and settings – Master data and sections – CRM and marketing – Marketing – Assortment management option.
For more information on using store formats and assortment management, see chapter "Assortment management".
Separate warerooms are individual goods storage locations which can be assigned within the warehouse.
You can specify an unlimited number of warerooms for a warehouse.
You should assign warerooms in the following cases:
- Financial liability is shared within the same warehouse area. Each wareroom has its own responsible person.
- Inventory is allocated by storage conditions.
- Warehouse documents are registered individually for each wareroom (storage area).
You can use warerooms in wholesale and retail warehouses.
By using warerooms at a retail warehouse, you can register goods sale from different store sections using one cash register.
To divide warehouse into warerooms, select the Use warerooms check box in the warehouse profile. You can use warerooms only when advanced warehousing is applied (see chapter "Use advanced warehousing").
You should specify information about warerooms in the Warerooms list. To access the list, click Warerooms in the navigation panel of the warehouse profile.
You can use warerooms for a particular warehouse at any time during the operation of the infobase. To use warerooms, use documents of entering balance (Master data and settings – Initial filling – Initial filling – Documents of entering start balance) with the Transition to using warerooms operation type. This operation type is used to record goods transfer from the warehouse as a single storage location to its warerooms.
You can arrange inventory storage at the warehouse (wareroom) by using the following methods:
- Storage without bins is the easiest way to store. Storage bins are not used and stock balance is accounted within the warehouse or wareroom. Specific location of goods at the warehouse is not defined according to the infobase data.
- Reference-address warehousing of goods in storage bins. Storage bins are used as reference information to simplify placement and picking of goods, but stock balance is counted by warehouse or wareroom on the whole. This method is well used if there is only one item of goods in each bin. It allows you to quickly find goods which should be shipped.
- Bin location warehousing. Goods are stored in the storage bins, and stock balance is counted by storage bins. If you use this storage method, goods are placed in the storage bins automatically considering goods features (conditions, storage period, dimensions) and warehouse characteristics (number of bins, standard size of bins, etc). This storage method allows you to quickly find goods at a warehouse and get exact information on quantity of goods stored in a particular storage bin. There are the following advantages of bin location warehousing:
- Warehouse management. The application allows you to place goods according to their packaging size in the appropriate bins, control bins filling, automatically determine empty storage bins according to the specified storage area and a warehouse group the goods belong to.
- Optimized warehouse space usage. It is provided by automatic placement of goods in the storage bins according to specified goods placement rules.
- Stocktaking without stoppage of warehouse work.
An option of bin usage is specified in the Storage bin field in the warehouse (wareroom) profile.
If you use bin location warehousing:
- All goods are accounted by packaging.
- Registration of warehouse operations (placement, picking, transfer, and recount) is automated via a mobile workplace of a warehouse worker.
In the diagram, you can see different options of using storage bins at warehouses without warerooms.
If you use separate warerooms at the warehouse, information about bin usage option is specified for each wareroom. In the diagram, you can see an example of using different bin usage options in warerooms of the same warehouse.
There are three warerooms within the warehouse: Electrical goods, Grocery, and Cable products. In the Electrical goods wareroom, stock balance is controlled in storage bins, and goods are placed in storage bins automatically. For this wareroom, the Use for storage of remaining product option is set. In the Grocery wareroom, information about goods placement in the storage bins is used for reference, so that you can quickly find goods on shipment. The Use product placement for reference option is set for this wareroom. In the Cable products wareroom, storage bins are not used. This wareroom has the Do not use option.
You can start using bin location warehousing during accounting at the warehouse. To do so, use Master data and settings – Initial filling – Initial filling – Documents of entering start balance with the Transition to the bin location warehousing of remaining goods operation type. The document registers transfer of goods which are recorded by the warehouse (wareroom) as a whole to the receiving area, and goods allocation from receiving area to the bins according to the structure of bin location warehousing.
For more information on entering start balance of own goods by bins, see chapter "Entering start balance".
Work area is a storage area with storage bins united by the same technology of work in the storage area (manual picking area, site of loaders work, site of high rack stacker area).
For example, a storage area with products in pallets is recommended to be processed by loaders, and a storage area with products in pieces — using manual picking.
Work areas allow you to divide warehouse areas or warerooms to organize work when placing and picking goods at the warehouse (wareroom).
You can create work areas for each warehouse or wareroom where bin location warehousing is used. To specify work areas, click Work areas on the navigation panel of the warehouse (wareroom) profile.
You can specify job limits by weight and volume for work areas in case of automatic generation. If jobs are limited by weight (volume), you can generate several goods placement jobs for one assignee. For example, a work area corresponds to a service area for autoloader with certain carrying capacity.
You can include a storage bin or a group of storage bins in a certain work area by the following methods:
- In the storage bin profile form (the Work area field).
- Within the Warehouse layout generation workplace (the Work area field).
Separate goods placement and picking jobs are registered for work areas (by goods storage areas in storage bins).
For each warehouse (wareroom) where bin location warehousing is used, a list of storage areas is determined.
Storage area is a part of warehouse or wareroom area with specific storage bins combined by the same storage conditions. For example, when storing food products, separate storage areas must be assigned to fresh vegetables, dairy products, and frozen products.
A list of warehouse product groups and warehouse packaging groups, which correspond to storage area conditions are determined for each storage area. For the same warehouse product group, you can determine several storage locations with different priority.
There are different storage locations for dairy products, sausages, and vegetables: milk, sausages, and vegetables. For each group, the highest priority is set for the storage area where product is best stored. For dairy products, the highest priority is the Milk storage location, and for sausages it is the Sausages storage location. At the same time, alternative storage locations can be assigned to these product groups. If milk packages cannot be placed in a priority storage location, then for a while they can be placed in a sausages storage location which has a lower priority for a dairy products group.
You can determine a storage area for each storage bin or a group of storage bins by using one of the following methods:
- In the storage bin profile (the Storage area field).
- Within the Warehouse layout generation workplace (the Storage area field).
Storage areas are used when generating placement jobs or goods picking jobs by specific bins that are associated with this storage area.
You can use bins in the storage area to store pegged goods or any goods according to the strategy of picking and placement.
Description of storage bin structure
Each bin has a unique location address in the warehouse (wareroom) which is specified in the storage bin profile.
Addressing principles are the same for reference-address and bin location warehousing.
You can use maximum five business units for the bin address generation:
- Section (storage area, which can have several lines).
- Line (aisles between bin sections, or one side of the rack).
- Rack (rack with shelves).
- Tier (shelf with items) is one or several rows placed one above the other.
The application provides a pass-through addressing of storage bins located in different warerooms of the same warehouse. That is why it is recommended that you use different section numbers in different warerooms.
In the diagram, you can see warehouse structure objects used in the generation of bin address:
Location structure of storage bins and their numbering order are specified sequentially in the Addressing section.
To number bins, you can use the following number types:
- Alphanumeric (Russian)
- Alphanumeric (Latin)
For example, goods are stored at a warehouse in two sections (A, B). Each section is divided into three lines (L1, L2, L3). Each line has five two-tier racks (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5). Each rack tier has ten bins where the goods are stored. In this case, in the Location group, it is required to do the following:
- Select the check box in the Sections group. Specify the alphanumeric (Latin) number type and a range of A—B numbers.
- Select the check box in the Lines group. Specify an alphanumeric (Russian) number type and a range of L1–L5 numbers.
- Select the check box in the Racks group. Specify an alphanumeric (Russian) number type and a range of R1–R5 numbers.
- Select the check box in the Tiers group. Specify a numeric number type and a range of 1—2 numbers.
- Select the check box in the Items group. Specify a numeric number type, select the Fixed length check box, and then enter 2. Specify a range of 1–10 numbers.
To generate a list of storage bins, you can use the Warehouse layout generation workplace which allows you to generate the bin structure at the warehouse and assign parameters to the bin list (work area, storage area, availability level, standard size, etc).
To sort numeric storage bins correctly, select the Fixed length check box within the workplace, and then specify a fixed length number of digits. It allows you to sort numeric storage bins with decimal numeric values correctly, that is, storage bins from 1 to 10 will be displayed correctly. In this case, the application adds the required number of zeros to the number in the Sample field according to the fixed length. Number sample of the target bin is displayed in the Sample field. Sample of number is generated according to the fixed length, number type, and values specified in the Numbers from and the Numbers until fields.
Storage bin structure is generated according to the parameters determined within the Warehouse layout generation workplace (address, standard size, work area, etc).
To see preliminarily generated storage bin structure, click Preview.
To create the storage bin structure, click Create structure.
If storage bin structure is already created, select the Update existing ones check box to add work area (storage area, standard size, etc).
To access the storage bin list, click Storage bins on the navigation panel of the warehouse (wareroom) profile.
You can bulk edit parameters for Storage bins items. To do so, click Change selected ones in the list of storage bins.
To optimize warehouse worker route when placing/picking goods, you can assign a specific number to each storage bin considering tour procedure in the Tour procedure field in the storage bin profile.
Tour procedure is used to create a specific sequence where storage bins are processed.
Storage bins are sorted in the placement and picking jobs according to the tour procedure. Storage bins are sorted from the lowest tour procedure value to the highest one.
If tour procedure values are equal, the application sorts storage bins by location address.
To optimize warehouse worker route, you should use sequential tour of bins by the "snake" method in which the route is generated from the beginning to the end of the aisle in odd aisles, and from the end to the beginning in even aisles.
"Snake" is a method of sequential tour of bins by a warehouse worker according to goods placement and picking jobs.
In the diagram, you can see tour procedure of bins using the "snake" method:
To use the "snake" method, there must be ways to bypass the rack rows and aisles with sufficient width.
Features of bin location warehouse settings
If you use placement algorithm settings at a bin location warehouse, you can do the following:
- Assign separate storage areas for different goods groups.
- Assign separate storage areas for goods with different packaging types.
- Determine specific bins for goods storage.
- Assign separate bins for pegged goods storage.
- Generate goods placement jobs with control by weight and volume.
- Place goods into storage bins according to allowed weight and volume.
- Optimize warehouse worker route when placing/picking goods.
The storage bins are used according to the following storage bin types:
- Storage is the main storage area. Storage bins of this type are used for goods placement, when picking goods.
- Receiving is an area of temporary storage of goods until they are allocated to the storage bins. When registering goods placement operation, goods from the Receiving area are transferred into the Storage area.
- Shipment is an area of temporary storage of goods prepared for shipment. Goods are transferred into this area from the Storage area.
- Archive — storage bins removed from the turnover (for example, because of warehouse reorganization). You cannot place goods into these storage bins, but you can pick them from these storage bins.
It is required to specify storage bins of the Storage, Receiving, Shipment types. Storage bins of the Archive type are optional.
When placing goods into storage bins and picking goods from storage bins, automatic placement and picking algorithms are used. In these algorithms, the following parameters are considered: size of storage bins and goods packagings, storage areas, bin availability level, tour procedure, etc.
In the goods placement and picking algorithms, the following parameters are considered:
Correspondence of bins and goods dimensions. If goods packaging does not fit into the bin, the application does not offer you such bin for placement.
You should specify height, width, and depth (standard size) for goods packaging.
Standard sizes of goods packaging are specified in Master data and settings – Master data – Product classifiers – Products – Standard sizes of packagings list.
If dimensions for goods packaging are not specified, select the Dimensionless check box in the packaging profile. In case of bin location warehousing of goods, dimensionless goods packagings can be placed only in bins unlimited by linear dimensions.
A list of standard bin sizes used in the company is specified in the Warehouse and delivery — Settings and catalogs – Warehouse – Standard sizes of storage bins list. If storage bin dimensions are not controlled when placing goods, select the Not limited check box in the standard size of storage bin profile.
Storage areas by priorities for each packaging of each product. Combination of "warehouse packaging group — warehouse group of products — storage area" generates the Goods placement rule which determines product warehouse group and warehouse packaging group which must be placed in a certain storage area.
In the storage area profile, you can set up picking and placement strategies which determine usage rules of bins in each storage area (single product bins or mixed). At first, you can place goods into an empty bin, then into bins with the same goods, and then into bins with other goods, etc.
- Placement priority into single product bins. Goods are placed into storage bins with the same goods (with the same serial number, shelf life, etc).
- Placement priority into mixed storage bins. Goods are placed into storage bins with the same and other goods (with different serial numbers, shelf life, etc.).
- Placement priority into storage bins with other goods. Goods are placed into storage bins where there are no such goods, but there is a free space for goods placement.
- Placement priority into empty bins. Goods are placed only into empty bins.
A warehouse received a goods batch Milk (Village House). When placing goods, the following strategy is used: first of all, the goods are added to the bins where such goods are already stored, then to the empty bins. After that goods are added to the bins where such goods are stored with similar products. In the last turn, the goods are added to the bins where the other goods are stored.
In this case, placement priorities are set as follows: to single product bins – 1, to empty storage bins – 2, to mixed storage bins – 3, to storage bins with other goods – 4.
- Picking priority from single product bins. Goods are picked from storage bins with the same goods (with the same serial number, shelf life, etc.).
- Picking priority from mixed storage bins. Goods are picked from storage bins with other goods.
- Picking priority "against remaining quantity". Goods are picked from storage bins where their quantity is minimal.
A large batch of Milk (Village House) must be shipped. When picking goods, the following strategy is used: first of all, goods are picked from the bins where there is a minimum goods batch of such products. Then goods are picked from the bins where they are stored with other goods. In the end, goods are taken from the bins intended for these goods.
In this case, picking priorities are set as follows: "against remaining quantity" – 1, from mixed storage bins – 2, from single product bins – 3.
Availability level. Determines physical availability of a bin at the warehouse and is used to search for bins by location convenience. When placing and picking goods, empty storage bins with the highest priority of availability level are used in the first turn. The closer a bin is to the exit from a warehouse (wareroom) and the lower it is placed, the easier it can be accessed.
Bins fullness by weight and volume. If percentage of bin fullness by weight and volume is greater than the specified value, the application will not offer you such bin. For example, a bin with a volume of 1 m3 cannot be filled out completely. Part of the volume of such bin cannot be used because of non-optimal goods stacking. To stack goods optimally, specify the following parameters:
- Filling by volume (%). Percentage of storage bin capacity by volume. Used volume of the bin is calculated considering the already stored goods, goods for placement, and goods processed by algorithm. This parameter is not controlled for bins with unlimited dimensions.
- Filling by weight (%). Percentage of storage bin capacity by weight. Used weight of the bin is calculated considering the already stored goods, goods for placement, and goods processed by algorithm. This parameter is not controlled for bins unlimited by carrying capacity.
The application minimizes the number of bins in which you can place goods, and selects a bin with the most free space. This reduces moving of a warehouse supervisor among storage bins. First of all, the least filled bins are selected.
Storage bin lock. Prohibits use of bins for receiving and picking goods. For example, bins can be locked while goods are recounted. The application does not place the goods into these storage bins.
Setting goods placement rules
Setting goods placement rules includes the following steps:
- Register a list of storage areas for a warehouse (wareroom)
- Register warehouse groups of products
- Register warehouse groups of packaging
- Determine rules of goods placement by storage areas
A list of warehouse product groups and warehouse packaging groups, which correspond to storage area conditions are determined for each storage area.
Warehouse product groups are used to divide goods according to their storage conditions at a warehouse. For example, you can assign separate warehouse groups of products, such as Shoes, Major appliances, Grocery, Dairy products.
A list of warehouse product groups used in the trade company is registered in Master data and settings – Master data – Product classifiers – Products – Warehouse groups of products list.
When placing goods into storage bins, you can consider weight and volume, or you can ignore one of the values.
Ignoring values is used for goods that are placed in measuring units (without packaging).
Restrictions by weight and volume are set in the warehouse product group profile in the Record while placing section.
You can determine goods warehouse group in its profile, in the Products list.
Warehouse packaging groups are used to divide goods packagings into groups by warehouse processing.
For example, you can assign separate warehouse groups for storage of pallets, boxes of shoes, boxes of furniture. You can determine packaging warehouse group in the packaging profile of particular goods or packaging set.
A list of warehouse packaging groups used in the company is registered in Master data and settings – Master data – Product classifiers – Products – Warehouse packaging groups list.
Rules of placing goods at a particular warehouse (wareroom) are determined for each specific warehouse product group and/or warehouse packaging group according to storage conditions at a warehouse.
Placement rules (i.e. allocation of warehouse product groups and warehouse packaging groups by storage areas) are further used in automatic goods placement in storage bins.
When registering placement rules, information about storage areas, warehouse product groups, and warehouse packaging groups is required.
If separate accounting by storage areas and warehouse groups is not required, you can do the following:
- Create one storage area and assign it to all storage bins by batch processing.
- Create one warehouse product group that will be used when a new product is created.
- Create one warehouse packaging group that will be used when a new packaging is created.
Placement rules are specified in the Goods placement rules list. To access the list, click Goods placement rules on the navigation panel of the storage area profile.
You can access a list of placement rules by clicking Warehouse and delivery — Settings and catalogs – Warehouse – Placement rules.
Using goods placement rules, you can specify a goods placement mode in the storage bins of bin location warehousing. There are the following goods placement modes:
- In packaging. Allows you to place only goods in packagings (piece storage units).
- Without packaging (kg, m2, m3, m). Allows you to do the following:
- Do not use packings for accounting of measuring goods at a bin location warehouse.
- Place goods in measured storage units (kg, m2, m3, m).
- Place and pick fractional quantity of goods.
If goods are placed in packaging, the placement rule consists of the following parameters:
- Warehouse group of products
- Warehouse packaging group
- Storage area
If goods are placed without packaging, the placement rule consists of the following parameters:
- Warehouse group of products
- Storage area
Priority is assigned to each rule. For example, this is relevant if there are several rules for one storage area or one warehouse product group.
You can specify several placement rules for one warehouse product group and/or warehouse packaging group and determine priority of this storage area when placing and picking goods from storage bins.
In the Features of bin location warehouse settings section, you can set placement rules for pegged goods.